AskDefine | Define mountain

Dictionary Definition

mountain adj : relating to or located in mountains; "mountain people" [syn: mountain(a)]


1 a land mass that projects well above its surroundings; higher than a hill [syn: mount]
2 a large number or amount; "made lots of new friends"; "she amassed a mountain of newspapers" [syn: tons, dozens, heaps, lots, piles, scores, stacks, loads, rafts, slews, wads, oodles, gobs, scads, lashings]

User Contributed Dictionary



  • a UK /ˈmaʊn.tɪn/, /"maUn.tIn/


  1. A large mass of earth and rock, rising above the common level of the earth or adjacent land.
  2. A large amount.
    There's still a mountain of work to do.


large mass of earth and rock
large amount


Extensive Definition

A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area, with a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill, but there is no universally accepted standard definition for the height of a mountain or a hill although a mountain usually has an identifiable summit. Mountains cover 64% of Asia, 36% of North America, 25% of Europe, 22% of South America, 17% of Australia, and 3% of Africa. As a whole, 24% of the Earth's land mass is mountainous. 10% of people live in mountainous regions. Most of the world's rivers are fed from mountain sources, and more than half of humanity depends on mountains for water.
The adjective montane is used to describe mountainous areas and things associated with them.


Some authorities define a mountain as a peak with a topographic prominence over a defined value: for example, according to the Britannica Student Encyclopedia, the term "generally refers to rises over 2,000 feet (610 m)". The Encyclopædia Britannica, on the other hand, does not prescribe any height, merely stating that "the term has no standardized geological meaning".

In the United Kingdom

In England and Wales the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs has defined "mountain" (as a mass noun) as all land over 600 metres for the purposes of right to roam legislation. This is a close metric equivalent of 2,000 feet (610 m). The Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2003 does not appear to draw this distinction, and in Scotland the term "mountain" is more subjective, often being used for hills exceeding 3,000 feet (914.4 m) listed as Munros. In the United Kingdom the term "hill" is commonly used for all hills and mountains, regardless of height.

In the United States

In the United States, the U.S. Board on Geographic Names lists hundreds of landscape features under (some as low as 100 feet) named as "mountains." This is true for all parts of the United States, including the west coast where such lofty ranges as the Cascade Mountains dominate. And yet the Board does not attempt to distinguish between such features as mountains, hills, or other prominences, and simply categorizes all of them as summit, regardless of what they are called or how high they are. However, the Board does list and categorize such low mountain ranges as the Mount Tom Range (with a high point of 1,200 feet; 366 m) as range.


The height of a mountain is measured as the elevation of its summit above mean sea level. The Himalayas average 5 km above sea level, while the Andes average 4 km. The highest mountain on land is Everest, in the Himalayas.
Other definitions of height are possible. The peak that is farthest from the center of the Earth is Chimborazo in Ecuador. At above sea level it is not even the tallest peak in the Andes, but because Chimborazo is very close to the equator and the Earth bulges at the equator, it is further away from the Earth's center than Everest. The peak that rises farthest from its base is Mauna Kea on Hawaii, whose peak is above its base on the floor of the Pacific Ocean.
Even though Everest is the highest mountain on Earth today, there have been much taller mountains in the past. During the Precambrian era, the Canadian Shield once had mountains in height that are now eroded down into rolling hills. These formed by the collision of tectonic plates much like the Himalaya and the Rocky Mountains.
At (Fraknoi et al., 2004), the tallest known mountain in the solar system is Olympus Mons, located on Mars and is an ancient volcano. Volcanoes have been known to erupt on other planets and moons in our solar system in our life-times (volcanoes on Venus for example, constantly erupt) and some of them erupt ice instead of lava. Several years ago, the Hale telescope recorded the first known live images of a volcano erupting on a moon in our solar system.


High mountains, and mountains located closer to the Earth's poles, have elevations that exist in colder layers of the atmosphere. They are consequently often subject to glaciation and erosion through frost action. Such processes produce the popularly recognizable mountain peak shape. Some of these mountains have glacial lakes, created by melting glaciers; for example, there are an estimated 3,000 glacial lakes in Bhutan.
Sufficiently tall mountains have very different climatic conditions at the top than at the base, and will thus have different life zones at different altitudes. The flora and fauna found in these zones tend to become isolated since the conditions above and below a particular zone will be inhospitable to those organisms. These isolated ecological systems are known as sky islands and/or microclimates. Tree forests are forests on mountain sides which attract moisture from the trees, creating a unique ecosystem. Very tall mountains may be covered in ice or snow.
Mountains are colder than lower ground, because the Sun heats Earth from the ground up. The Sun's radiation travels through the atmosphere to the ground, where Earth absorbs the heat. Air closest to the Earth's surface is, in general, warmest (see lapse rate for details). Air as high as a mountain is poorly warmed and, therefore, cold. Air temperature normally drops 1 to 2 degrees Celsius (1.8 to 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) for each 300 meters (1000 feet) of altitude.
Mountains are generally less preferable for human habitation than lowlands; the weather is often harsher, and there is little level ground suitable for agriculture. At very high altitudes, there is less oxygen in the air and less protection against solar radiation (UV). Acute mountain sickness (caused by hypoxia - a lack of oxygen in the blood) affects over half of lowlanders who spend more than a few hours above 3,500 meters (11,483 feet).
A number of mountains and mountain ranges of the world have been left in their natural state, and are today primarily used for recreation, while others are used for logging, mining, grazing, or see little use of any sort at all. Some mountains offer spectacular views from their summits, while others are densely wooded. Summit accessibility ranges from mountain to mountain; height, steepness, latitude, terrain, weather, and the presence or lack thereof of roads, lifts, or tramways are all factors that affect accessibility. Hiking, backpacking, mountaineering, rock climbing, ice climbing, downhill skiing, and snowboarding are recreational activities typically enjoyed on mountains. Mountains that support heavy recreational use (especially downhill skiing) are often the locations of mountain resorts.

Types of mountains

Mountains can be characterized in several ways. Some mountains are volcanoes and can be characterized by the type of lava and eruptive history. Other mountains are shaped by glacial processes and can be characterized by their glaciated features. Still others are typified by the faulting and folding of the Earth's crust, or by the collision of continental plates via plate tectonics (the Himalayas, for instance). Shape and placement within the overall landscape also define mountains and mountainous structures (such as butte and monadnock). Finally, many mountains can be characterized by the type of rock that make up their composition. More information on mountain types can be found in List of mountain types.


rect 58 14 160 49 Chomo Lonzo rect 200 28 335 52 Makalu rect 378 24 566 45 Mount Everest rect 188 581 920 656 Tibetan Plateau rect 250 406 340 427 Rong River rect 333 149 409 186 Changtse rect 550 284 677 303 Rongbuk Glacier rect 478 196 570 218 North Face rect 237 231 346 267 East Rongbuk Glacier rect 314 290 536 309 North Col north ridge route rect 531 79 663 105 Lhotse rect 582 112 711 130 Nuptse rect 603 232 733 254 South Col route rect 716 165 839 206 Gyachung Kang rect 882 147 967 183 Cho Oyu rect 1 1 999 661 desc bottom-left
A mountain is usually produced by the movement of lithospheric plates, either orogenic movement or epeirogenic movement. The compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upwards, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features. The height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if higher and steeper, a mountain. The absolute heights of features termed mountains and hills vary greatly according to an area's terrain. The major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity. Two types of mountain are formed depending on how the rock reacts to the tectonic forces – block mountains or fold mountains.
The compressional forces in continental collisions may cause the compressed region to thicken, so the upper surface is forced upwards. In order to balance the weight, much of the compressed rock is forced downwards, producing deep "mountain roots". Mountains therefore form downwards as well as upwards (see isostasy). However, in some continental collisions part of one continent may simply override part of the others, crumpling in the process.
Some isolated mountains were produced by volcanoes, including many apparently small islands that reach a great height above the ocean floor.
Block mountains are created when large areas are widely broken up by faults creating large vertical displacements. This occurrence is fairly common. The uplifted blocks are block mountains or horsts. The intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. This form of landscape can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range province of Western North America and the Rhine valley. These areas often occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned.
The mid-ocean ridges are often referred to as undersea mountain ranges due to their bathymetric prominence.
Where rock does not fault it folds, either symmetrically or asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines; in asymmetric folding there may also be recumbent and overturned folds. The Jura mountains are an example of folding. Over time, erosion can bring about an inversion of relief: the soft upthrust rock is worn away so the anticlines are actually lower than the tougher, more compressed rock of the synclines.



wikiquote Mountains
  • Fraknoi, A., Morrison, D., & Wolff, S. (2004). Voyages to the Planets. 3rd Ed. Belmont: Thomson Books/Cole.

External links

mountain in Arabic: جبل
mountain in Aragonese: Montaña
mountain in Official Aramaic (700-300 BCE): ܛܘܪܐ
mountain in Asturian: Monte
mountain in Azerbaijani: داغ
mountain in Bengali: পর্বত
mountain in Bashkir: Тау
mountain in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Гара
mountain in Bosnian: Planina
mountain in Breton: Menez
mountain in Bulgarian: Планина
mountain in Catalan: Muntanya
mountain in Czech: Hora
mountain in Welsh: Mynydd
mountain in Danish: Bjerg
mountain in German: Berg
mountain in Estonian: Mägi
mountain in Modern Greek (1453-): Βουνό
mountain in Emiliano-Romagnolo: Muntâgna
mountain in Spanish: Montaña
mountain in Esperanto: Monto
mountain in Basque: Mendi
mountain in Persian: کوه
mountain in French: Montagne
mountain in Irish: Sliabh
mountain in Scottish Gaelic: Beinn
mountain in Galician: Montaña
mountain in Korean: 산
mountain in Hindi: पर्वत
mountain in Croatian: Planine
mountain in Bishnupriya: মোন্টানহা
mountain in Indonesian: Gunung
mountain in Icelandic: Fjall
mountain in Italian: Montagna
mountain in Hebrew: הר
mountain in Javanese: Góra
mountain in Georgian: მთა
mountain in Kinyarwanda: Umusozi
mountain in Haitian: Mòn
mountain in Latin: Mons
mountain in Luxembourgish: Bierg
mountain in Lithuanian: Kalnas
mountain in Lingala: Ngómbá
mountain in Lojban: cmana
mountain in Hungarian: Hegy
mountain in Macedonian: Планина
mountain in Malay (macrolanguage): Gunung
mountain in Dutch: Berg (geografie)
mountain in Cree: ᐧᐊᔒ
mountain in Nepali: पहाड
mountain in Japanese: 山
mountain in Norwegian: Fjell
mountain in Norwegian Nynorsk: Fjell
mountain in Narom: Montangne
mountain in Occitan (post 1500): Montanha
mountain in Low German: Barg
mountain in Polish: Góra
mountain in Portuguese: Montanha
mountain in Romanian: Munte
mountain in Romansh: Muntogna
mountain in Quechua: Urqu
mountain in Russian: Гора
mountain in Simple English: Mountain
mountain in Slovak: Vrch (vyvýšenina)
mountain in Slovenian: Gora
mountain in Serbian: Планина
mountain in Serbo-Croatian: Planina
mountain in Sundanese: Gunung
mountain in Finnish: Vuori
mountain in Swedish: Berg
mountain in Thai: ภูเขา
mountain in Vietnamese: Núi
mountain in Tajik: Кӯҳ
mountain in Cherokee: ᎣᏓᎸ
mountain in Turkish: Dağ
mountain in Turkmen: Dag
mountain in Ukrainian: Гора
mountain in Contenese: 山
mountain in Chinese: 山

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

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